Some good child and adolescent gender and creativity data is in.
Three main findings:
1) On average, girls are more creative than boys.
2) Sex differences in average levels of creativity disappear by age 16.
3) After 14 years of age, more males than females are found among both the highest and lowest scorers.
In the first systematic study of gender achievement gaps in U.S. school districts, we estimate male-female test score gaps in math and English Language Arts (ELA) for nearly 10,000 school districts in the U.S. We use state accountability test data from third through eighth grade students in the 2008-09 through 2014-15 school years. The average school district in our sample has no gender achievement gap in math, but a gap of roughly 0.23 standard deviations in ELA that favors girls. Both math and ELA gender achievement gaps vary among school districts and are positively correlated – some districts have more male-favoring gaps and some more female-favoring gaps. We find that math gaps tend to favor males more in socioeconomically advantaged school districts and in districts with larger gender disparities in adult socioeconomic status. These two variables explain about one fifth of the variation in the math gaps. However, we find little or no association between the ELA gender gap and either socioeconomic variable, and we explain virtually none of the geographic variation in ELA gaps.
Girls perform better at English, Language & Arts, boys perform better at Math.
Of course, the New York Times presented the Math gap as the problem
Where Boys Outperform Girls in Math: Rich, White and Suburban Districts
CLAIRE CAIN MILLER June 13, 2018
In much of the country, the stereotype that boys do better than girls at math isn’t true – on average, they perform about the same, at least through eighth grade. But there’s a notable exception.
In school districts that are mostly rich, white and suburban, boys are much more likely to outperform girls in math, according to a new study from Stanford researchers, one of the most comprehensive looks at the gender gap in test scores at the school district level.
The research, based on 260 million standardized test scores for third through eighth graders in nearly every district in the country, suggests that local norms influence how children perform in school from early ages – and that boys are much more influenced than girls.
“It could be about some set of expectations, it could be messages kids get early on or it could be how they’re treated in school,” said Sean Reardon, professor of poverty and inequality in education at Stanford, who conducted the study with Erin Fahle, a doctoral candidate in education policy there, and colleagues. “Something operates to help boys more than girls in some places and help girls more than boys in other places.”
The study included test scores from the 2008 to 2014 school years for 10,000 of the roughly 12,000 school districts in the United States. In no district do boys, on average, do as well or better than girls in English and language arts. In the average district, girls perform about three-quarters of a grade level ahead of boys.
The gender achievement gap in math reflects a paradox of high-earning parents. They are more likely to say they hold egalitarian views about gender roles. But they are also more likely to act in traditional ways – father as breadwinner, mother as caregiver.
The gap was largest in school districts in which men earned a lot, had high levels of education, and were likely to work in business or science. Women in such districts earned significantly less. Children might absorb the message that sons should grow up to work in high-earning, math-based jobs.
High-income parents spend more time and money on their children, and invest in more stereotypical activities, researchers said, enrolling their daughters in ballet and their sons in engineering.
There is also a theory that high-earning families invest more in sons, because men in this socioeconomic group earn more than women, while low-earning families invest more in daughters, because working-class women have more job opportunities than men.
One of the defining moments in human evolution has been identified as a male adaptation.
On The Evolution of The Sex Differences in Throwing: Throwing is a Male Adaptation in Humans
Michael P. Lombardo
Biology Department, Grand Valley State University Allendale, Michigan 49401-9403 USA; e-mail: email@example.com
Robert O. Deaner
Psychology Department, Grand Valley State University Allendale, Michigan 49401-9403 USA; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The development of the ability to throw projectiles for distance, speed, and accuracy was a watershed event in human evolution. We hypothesize that throwing first arose in threat displays and during fighting and later was incorporated into hunting by members of the Homo lineage because nonhuman primates often throw projectiles during agonistic interactions and only rarely in attempts to subdue prey. Males, who threw more often than females in both combat and hunting, would have been under stronger selection than females to become proficient at the ability to throw, intercept, and dodge projectiles as throwing skills became critical to success in combat and hunting. Therefore, we predict that males, more than females, should display innate anatomical and behavioral traits associated with throwing. We use data from a variety of disciplines to discuss: the sex differences in throwing speed, distance, and accuracy; sex differences in the development of the throwing motion; inability of training or cultural influences to erase the sex differences in throwing; sex differences in the use of throwing in sports, combat, and hunting; and sex differences in anatomical traits associated with throwing that are partly responsible for male throwing superiority. These data contradict the view held by many commentators that socialization rather than innate sex differences in ability are primarily responsible for male throwing superiority. We suggest that throwing is a male adaptation.
Another nail in the coffin of "Patriarchy" bullshit:
Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls
Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families), we examined mothers’ and fathers’ differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents’ use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08). The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03). A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents’ gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal.
Widespread structural, chemical and molecular differences have been reported between the male and female human brain. Although several neurodevelopmental disorders are more commonly diagnosed in males, little is known regarding sex differences in early human brain development. Here, we used RNA sequencing data from a large collection of human brain samples from the second trimester of gestation (N = 120) to assess sex biases in gene expression within the human fetal brain. In addition to 43 genes (102 Ensembl transcripts) transcribed from the Y-chromosome in males, we detected sex differences in the expression of 2558 autosomal genes (2723 Ensembl transcripts) and 155 genes on the X-chromosome (207 Ensembl transcripts) at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.1. Genes exhibiting sex-biased expression in human fetal brain are enriched for high-confidence risk genes for autism and other developmental disorders. Male-biased genes are enriched for expression in neural progenitor cells, whereas female-biased genes are enriched for expression in Cajal-Retzius cells and glia. All gene- and transcript- level data are provided as an online resource (available at http://fgen.psycm.cf.ac.uk/FBSeq1) through which researchers can search, download and visualize data pertaining to sex biases in gene expression during early human brain development.
Actress Rose McGowan is urging Australian women to walk out of work on Wednesday afternoon to demand pay parity. #WalkoutOz, a local campaign aimed at highlighting the gender pay gap.
On Wednesday at 3:50pm, women and men will be walking off the job as part of #WalkoutOz. @RoseMcgowan explains why she has lent her voice to the campaign and what it means to her. #TheProjectTV
In the interview, McGowan also discussed the personal toll she's faced as one of the more prominent figures in the #MeToo movement, describing her role as "a gatekeeper of pain".
"Especially in this last year, which was a really triggering year for a lot of people, it definitely felt like at some points I was a gatekeeper for that. But I can shoulder it, and I'm here to shoulder it...
"But yes, I've probably shaved a couple of years off my life," she said.